More on Balance and Movement
From "Showing And Judging Dogs"
Looking at the dog from the front the inclination on which the shoulder blade lies on the rib cage will affect the position of the foreleg to attain static balance when the dog is standing. The static center of gravity of each shoulder blade is roughly the center and in order to have static balance the dog must place his heel or the inner edge of the heel vertically under the center of the shoulder blade.
Kinetic balance deals with forces in motion. When a dog commences
to move, he will move from the position of his static balance and as his speed
increases, in order to procure maximum efficiency in movement, the legs,
when seen from the front or the rear, must incline inwards towards a longitudinal
central line in order to maintain kinetic balance. The faster the dog moves,
the more his legs will incline inwards until the speed is reached where he
will single-track in order to maintain his balance. It is absolutely imperative
that it be understood that the alignment of the bones from the center of
the shoulder blade, when viewed from the front, to the center of the foot
must be in one straight line, but it is not a vertical line. The same applies
to the hindleg when seen from behind. The bone alignment from the hip joint
to the foot must also be in a straight line but not a vertical line, except
when the dog is standing.
There are unfortunately still too many people who do not perceive the difference between single-tracking and moving close. It is the difference between a sound dog and an unsound one. When a dog is moving fast and single-tracks at speed, his lugs seen from the front are inclined inwards and the bone and joint alignment from the center of the shoulder blade to the center of the pad must be in one straight line. If the forward-moving leg brushes or interferes with the weight-bearing leg, then there is a constructional fault, and the alignment of bone and joints will not be in a straight line. If the alignment is correct and straight, then there will be a fault in timing or a constructional body fault.
The difference between moving close and single-tracking is that, when viewed from the front or the rear, the column of bones is not in a straight line: it is generally broken by the pasterns which either turn in or out. From the rear it may be the hocks which break the straight line of the bone assembly and this will be seen with cow-hocked dogs. This fault is a great weakness, because the line is broken twice between the hip and the pad.
POUNDING AND PADDING
Pounding and padding are both caused by the same faults, an upright shoulder blade, which is frequently combined with too strong a rear action. Pounding is when the dog takes no action to compensate for the fault. Padding is the evasive action of a hackney gait which the dog employs, in order to lessen the excessive shock to the whole of the front of the dog through the pad.